The Rohingya Muslim Crisis

MAULANA WAHIDUDDIN KHAN walks us through the story of the Rohingya Muslims, who are fleeing Myanmar, in search of safe refuge from the ninth century, onwards. Arab and other traders have visited the Rakhine state, formerly Arakan, on the western coast of Burma (Myanmar), and in the early days, a group of them settled there. As a result of interaction with the local population, Islam gradually spread,until a large part of the Rakhine state became Muslim. For centuries, the Muslims of Arakan lived peacefully with the rest of Burma and had no separatist tendencies.

However, when East Pakistan was formed in 1947, certain emotional Muslim leaders tried to make a separate Muslim state out of the region where the Rohingya people lived. They described their efforts as ‘self-determination’. This movement picked up pace and many extremist Muslims took an active part in it. The Myanmar central government saw these actions as revolt, as in essence,it was a movement for separation from Myanmar. Prior to the insurgency, Rohingya Muslims had lived peacefully alongside the other people of Myanmar.

But emotional speeches made by separatist leaders kindled separatism in the Rohingya. To curb their activities, the Myanmar government took tough action and stern measures against them,which,according to Rohingya leaders, were an act of ‘oppression’. The government’s response was designed to bring discipline to their country. In 1971, when Bangladesh was formed,it gave a kind of political boost to the Rohingya leaders, who further intensified their separatist activities,due to which the Myanmar government reacted more stringently than before.

This is the story of the Rohingya Muslims in brief. When I was in Lucknow — perhaps in 1966 — one day, a Muslim scholar came to me and said he was going to Burma, and asked if I would accompany him. When I asked why, he replied that a movement for the formation of a Muslim state was going on in Myanmar and that we, too, should lend our full support to it. I strongly disagreed with his suggestion. I explained to him that people who thought like him might be trying to form a state in the name of Islam, but that such an act would only lead to strife.

I told him that I disapproved of their method of proceeding, as a movement that took shape in such a manner was not truly Islamic, and could only lead to conflict and dispute. I made it clear that I could not endorse such a cause. He became angry and left. Since 1966,my opinion on the Rohingyas is only one and that is:The case of the Rohingya Muslims is not one of ‘oppression’, but rather, it is the outcome of ill-judged political activities instigated by unwise leaders. If the whole picture were to be seen, one would arrive at the conclusion that the Rohingya Muslims are not victims of oppression, but are rather paying the price for their own unrealistic actions carried out under the influence of misguided leaders.

Such a separatist movement would be unacceptable to any country,even if it were given the euphemistic name of ‘self-determinism’. The solution to the problem of the Rohingya Muslims is only one — that is, they must disavow their insurgency and militant activities. They should make it known that they are a larger part of the Myanmar nation. They should rid their hearts of separatist tendencies. I am sure that the Myanmar government would then accept them, and the whole issue would be peacefully resolved.

The separatist movement has only caused a deterioration of the condition of the Rohingyas to the point of ruination, although prior to this they were living prosperously in Myanmar. Indeed, the best interests of the Rohingya Muslims lie not in wanting a separate land, but rather, in living as part of the state of Myanmar. This is true both in the religious and secular sense. In 1934, I took admission in the Madrasah al-Islah, an Arabic seminary in Azamgarh, for my religious education. I had only one friend in this seminary, one Abdul Rashid Rangooni (he was from Burma).

He was a very decent person and had a very good opinion about the Burma of his time. Judging by the impressions I received from him about the Burmese people, I would say that the blame for the later actions which were taken against the Rohingya Muslims lies not entirely with the Burmese administration, but with the unwise Rohingya leaders who fuelled violent activities in the region. In the course of this militancy, outside leaders also participated, aggravating the situation. But I personally know that the Burmese are very good people and will certainly reaccept the Rohingya Muslims wholeheartedly, provided the Rohingyas acknowledge that they were misled by separatist leaders and have now resolved to remain faithful citizens of Myanmar. Outsource Data Entry Projects to India


The food safety management system means the adoption of good manufacturing practices, good hygienic practices, hazard analysis and critical control point and such other practices, as may be specified by regulations for the purpose of the food business. Section 16(2)c of the FSSA mandates one of the duties of FSSAI by stating that FSSAI shall frame mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certifications bodies engaged in certification of food safety management systems for food business.

Further, as per sec 44 of the FSSA, FSSAI may recognize any organizations or agency for the purposes of a food safety audit and checking the compliance with FSMS as required under the act and /or the regulations. The licensing authorities while reviewing applications for grant of a license under the provisions of the FSSA and / or the regulations ask for the attachment of the document regarding the FSMS plan whatever applicable. In the absence of such a plan, they may insist on a declaration stating that the food business shall be equipped with FSMS.

Keeping in view of the above, it is clear that any manufacturing unit producing food for human consumption must have FSMS in the unit. This will help to ensure production of safe food for human consumption. The ultimate goal is of generally having FSMS in place for food business. Therefore, the requirements of FSMS shall be applicable to the food chain starting right from the production of food to the final consumption of this food by the consumer.

The food chain thus can be contaminated at any point from farm to fork as demonstrated below:

  • Farms
  • Transport
  • Mill Slaughter food processor
  • Distribution wholesale stockiest
  • Retail Restaurant
  • Consumer

Requirement of an organization in the food chain as specified by the international standards organization

International standards Organizations (ISO) has also developed requirements of FSMS as documents ISO: 22000:2005. It specifies requirements of FSMS in the food chain of an organization to control food safety hazards so as to ensure that the food is safe at the time of its consumption. It can be applicable to any organization big or small to accomplish the ultimate goal i.e safety of food available to the consumer.

Key elements of the FSMS

  • Good practices/ pre requisite practices (PRP’s);

PRP’s or good practices comprise of eight principles of good hygienic practices (GHP) which are required to be followed by a food business at every step of the food chain: They are:

  • Primary production
  • Establishment
  • Control of operation
  • Maintenance and sanitation
  • Personal hygiene
  • Transportation
  • Product information and consumer awareness
  • Training
  • Contaminated water from polluted rivers of India
  • Hazard analysis critical controls points (HACCP)

A HACCP system helps in the identification of hazards and helps in the management of such hazards throughout the supply chain during the process of production.

  • Management elements/systems;
  • Food safety plan, policies, training, monitoring, supervision and reporting
  • Statutory and regulatory requirements; and
  • FMS is mandatory for food businesses. The mandatory requirement of FSMS for specific food business is enumerated in schedule 4 of the regulations.
  • Communication

Communication of information is important at every stage of the food chain and food production. The information received or available must be communicated to persons responsible for food safety at each point of the food production and at every stage of the food chain.


  • What is meant by Food safety management systems (FSMS)?

The Food safety management systems (FSMS) is a network of interrelated elements that combine to ensure that foods does not cause adverse health effects to human beings. These elements include programmes, plans, polocies, procedures, practices, processes, goals, objectives, methods, controls, roles, responsibilities, relationships, documents, records and resources.

  • What are the key elements of FSMS and Get Online FSSAI Registration Service
  1. Good practices/ pre requisite practices (PRP’s);
  2. Hazard analysis critical controls points (HACCP)
  3. Management elements/systems;
  4. Statutory and regulatory requirements; and
  5. Communication
  • Which section of the FSSA describes FSMS?

Section 16 2 c provides for the mechanism for accreditation of certification bodies for food safety management systems and section 44 of FSSA provides for the recognition of an organization or agency for conducting food safety audits and checking compliance with the food safety management system, required under the regulations.

  • What is the purpose of FSMS?

The purpose of FSMS is to ensure the manufacture, storage, distribution and sale of safe food.